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引用本文:孙雪婷,于浩林,唐衍力,于梦杰,赵伟,盛化香.小竹山岛人工鱼礁区大型底栖动物群落结构的初步研究[J].海洋科学,2023,47(12):80-92.
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小竹山岛人工鱼礁区大型底栖动物群落结构的初步研究
孙雪婷1, 于浩林2, 唐衍力1, 于梦杰1, 赵伟1, 盛化香1
1.中国海洋大学 水产学院, 山东 青岛 266003;2.中国科学院海洋研究所, 山东 青岛 266003
摘要:
为探究小竹山岛海域投放人工鱼礁后大型底栖动物群落结构的变化, 于2017—2020年进行了8个航次的调查, 研究鱼礁区、邻近区与对照区的大型底栖动物种类组成、优势种、生物多样性、群落结构及群落稳定性。结果显示, 共鉴定出大型底栖动物72种, 其中多毛类45种, 甲壳类16种, 软体动物8种, 棘皮动物3种, 投礁后第4年(2020年)比投礁后第1年(2017年)种类数增加了15种, 并且鱼礁区的种类数多于邻近区与对照区。优势种组成以多毛类为主。调查海域大型底栖动物生物量和丰度呈逐年上升趋势, 年份间差异显著, 2017—2020年年均生物量从2.11 g/m2上升到4.38 g/m2, 年均丰度从289.31 ind./m2上升到764.14 ind./m2, 区域间无显著差异。多样性指数、丰富度指数和均匀度指数在不同年份和区域之间变化不显著。聚类分析结果显示, 大型底栖动物群落结构分布格局呈现年际变化; 双因素相似性分析结果表明, 调查海域大型底栖动物群落结构的年份差异显著(P<0.01), 区域间无显著差异(P>0.05); 相似性百分比分析结果表明, 深沟毛虫(Sigambra bassi)、长叶索沙蚕(Lumbrineris longiforlia)、中蚓虫(Mediomastus californiensis)和寡鳃齿吻沙蚕(Micronephthys oligobranchia)等是造成群落年际差异的主要贡献种。丰度/生物量曲线结果表明, 2017—2020年大型底栖动物群落均未受到扰动, 随着鱼礁建设时间的推移, 大型底栖动物群落更趋稳定。
关键词:  小竹山岛  人工鱼礁  大型底栖动物  群落结构
DOI:10.11759/hykx20220829001
分类号:S932
基金项目:山东近海渔业资源调查与监测(37000022P11000111802T)
Preliminary study on the community structure of macrobenthos in the artificial reef area of Xiaozhushan Island
SUN Xue-ting1, YU Hao-lin2, TANG Yan-li1, YU Meng-jie1, ZHAO Wei1, SHENG Hua-xiang1
1.College of Fisheries, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China;2.Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266003, China
Abstract:
To investigate the variation of the macrobenthos community structure following the placement of artificial reefs in Xiaozhushan Island, eight voyages of macrobenthos surveys were conducted from 2017 to 2020 in the reef, adjacent, and control areas to Xiaozhushan Island. The species composition, dominant species, abundance, biomass, and biodiversity on Xiaozhushan Island were investigated. The interannual variation in the macrobenthic community structure was compared between the years. The abundance/biomass curves were used to explore the stability of the macrobenthic communities. The results showed that 72 macrobenthic species were identified, including 45 species of Polychaeta, 16 species of Crustacea, 8 species of Mollusca, and 3 species of Echinodermata. Simultaneously, the number of species increased by 15 during the fourth year (2020) compared with the first year (2017) after casting the reefs. Additionally, more species were detected in the reef area than in the adjacent and control areas. There were interannual fluctuations in the composition of dominant species, but Polychaeta was the dominant group. The biomass and abundance of macrobenthos increased annually and were significantly different over the four years. However, no significant difference was detected between the areas. The annual average biomass increased from 2.11 g/m2 to 4.38 g/m2, and the annual average abundance increased from 289.31 ind./m2 to 764.14 ind./m2. The Shannon–Wiener diversity index, the Margalef richness index, and the Pielou evenness index of macrobenthos did not differ significantly among the years or the areas. The CLUSTER results showed that the similarity of the macrobenthic community structure was low over the years, and the distribution pattern of the macrobenthic community varied between the years. The two-factor similarity analysis indicated significant differences in the macrobenthic community structure in the surveyed sea area among the years (P < 0.01) but no significant differences among the areas (P > 0.05). The results of the similarity percentage analysis showed that Sigambra bassi, Lumbrineris longiforlia, Mediomastus californiensis, and Nephtys oligobranchia were the key species that added to the differences in the community during the surveys. The abundance/biomass curves indicated that no disturbance to the macrobenthic community occurred during the investigation period, and the macrobenthic communities stabilized with increased reef casting time.
Key words:  Xiaozhushan Island  Artificial reef  Macrobenthos  Community structure
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