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引用本文:顾瑞婷,徐少春,岳世栋,许帅,张玉,张晓梅,周毅.中国辽宁-浙江沿海地区川蔓草分布现状、生态特征及其主要威胁[J].海洋科学,2023,47(12):69-79.
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中国辽宁-浙江沿海地区川蔓草分布现状、生态特征及其主要威胁
顾瑞婷1,2, 徐少春2,3, 岳世栋2,3, 许帅2,3, 张玉2,3, 张晓梅2,4,5,6,7, 周毅2,4,3,5,6,7
1.华东师范大学 崇明生态研究院, 上海 202162;2.中国科学院海洋研究所, 海洋生态与环境科学重点实验室, 山东 青岛 266071;3.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;4.青岛海洋国家实验室, 海洋生态与环境科学功能实验室, 山东 青岛 266237;5.中国科学院海洋大科学研究中心, 山东 青岛 266071;6.中国科学院海洋牧场工程实验室, 山东 青岛 266071;7.山东省实验海洋生物学重点实验室, 山东 青岛 266071
摘要:
川蔓草(Ruppia)是一种广泛分布在咸水、半咸水生境中的广义海草, 其形成的川蔓草床具有重要的生态学价值。然而, 对于其在中国境内的分布情况尚缺乏大范围的调查。基于此, 本研究于2016—2019年对中国辽宁-浙江沿海区域的川蔓草分布情况进行了初步调查, 探究了调查区域内川蔓草的生境分布类型, 及生态特征, 分析了川蔓草床的主要威胁, 并提出了对川蔓草床科学管理的建议。结果表明: 川蔓草在中国浙江省、江苏省、山东省、天津市、河北省、辽宁省均有分布; 分布面积超过2 100 ha; 该区域内分布的川蔓草物种均为中国川蔓草, 主要分布生境包括咸水养殖池塘、咸水沟渠(池塘)、盐场、瀉湖(湖泊)、潮间带(围堰)5类; 人类活动影响(人工清捞、施药、河道工程等)与极端气候事件(极端干旱事件)都会导致川蔓草床退化, 但大部分川蔓草床可以依靠沉积物中的种子库在环境适宜时进行种群恢复; 不同生境中的川蔓草种群特征差异较大, 因此, 对不同生境中的川蔓草应制定差异性管理措施。
关键词:  川蔓草  分布  生境类型  威胁  种群补充
DOI:10.11759/hykx20220915001
分类号:P76
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2022YFC3105403)、国家科技基础性工作专项(2015FY110600)
Distribution, ecological features, and threats to Ruppia populations between Liaoning and Zhejiang, China
GU Ruiting1,2, XU Shaochun2,3, YUE Shidong2,3, XU Shuai2,3, ZHANG Yu2,3, ZHANG Xiaomei2,4,5,6,7, ZHOU Yi2,4,3,5,6,7
1.Institute of Eco-Chongming, East China Normal University, Shanghai 202162, China;2.CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;3.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;4.Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China;5.Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;6.CAS Engineering Laboratory for Marine Ranching, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;7.Shandong Province Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Qingdao 266071, China
Abstract:
Ruppia is a seagrass species that is widely distributed in salt and brackish water habitats. Although Ruppia beds have ecological value, limited information is available on their current distribution in China. Therefore, we investigated the distribution status of Ruppia from northern Zhejiang Province to Liaoning Province during 2016–2019. The habitat types and ecological features of the Ruppia populations were recorded during the investigation, and their major threats and suggestions for management were addressed. The results showed that Ruppia was observed in six provinces, including Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Shandong, Tianjin, Hebei, and Liaoning, with a distribution area of more than 2, 100 ha, and all species were identified as Ruppia sinensis. Five main habitat types were summarized in the investigated area, including marine culture pond, brackish water ditch (pond), saltpan, lagoon (lake), and intertidal zone (batardeau). Human activities (artificial clear, herbicide application, and river engineering) and climate change (extreme drought conditions) could result in a decline in the Ruppia population; however, several Ruppia populations rely on their seed banks when the conditions become suitable. Moreover, different management strategies should be applied to Ruppia populations in different habitats.
Key words:  Ruppia  distribution  habitat type  threats  population recruitment
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