|为从行为学角度解释中国蛤蜊(Mactra chinensis Philippi)的跑滩现象, 研究了规格、温度对其跳跃行为以及底质、流速和周期性干露对其潜沙行为的影响。结果表明, 中国蛤蜊运动能力与其规格和水温有关, 3 mm稚贝不具备跳跃能力, 5 mm以上具备跳跃能力; 跳跃频率和高度随水温的升高呈上升趋势。中国蛤蜊稚贝潜沙比例均随时间推移逐渐上升; 各时间节点中国蛤蜊稚贝在细沙底质的潜沙比例最高, 中沙底质次之, 粗沙底质最低。施加微弱水流后, 中国蛤蜊稚贝潜沙速度和比例显著增加; 流速增大到一定程度后部分稚贝被水流冲走, 潜沙比例随之下降。周期性干露会导致中国蛤蜊稚贝从底质中爬出, 干露时间越长, 爬出比例越高。干露后的稚贝重新放置于海水中, 部分稚贝会在水面漂浮一段时间后再下落至水底, 漂浮比例随干露时间的增加而增加。本研究从行为学角度初步查明了中国蛤蜊跑滩现象, 为解决中国蛤蜊防跑滩问题提供了思路。
|关键词: 中国蛤蜊(Mactra chinensis Philippi) 行为学 跳跃 潜沙 周期性干露 跑滩
|Preliminary study on the behavior of Mactra chinensis Philippi
LI Jin-ze1, HU Zhi2, WANG Xiao-long3, LI Yong-ren1, GUO Yong-jun1, ZHANG Tao2
1.Tianjin Key Laboratory of Aquatic Ecology and Aquaculture, Marine Products Institute, Tianjin Agricultural University, Tianjin 300384, China;2.CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;3.Shandong Academy of Marine Sciences, Qingdao, 266104, China
|To investigate the ethology in the escaping mechanism of Mactra chinensis Philippi, the effects of size and temperature on their jumping behavior, as well as the effects of sediment, flow velocity, and periodic air exposure on their burrowing of M. chinensis Phillipi were examined. The results demonstrated that the movement ability of M. chinensis was significantly correlated with its size and water temperature. Juvenile clams less than 3 mm in size could not jump, while those larger than 5 mm could, and the frequency and height of jumping escalated with the increase of water temperature. The juvenile burrowing ratio of M. chinensis increased over time, with the highest ratio observed on the fine sand substrate, the lowest on the coarse sand substrate, and intermediate values observed on the medium sand substrate. The application of water flow significantly increased the burrowing speed and ratio of juvenile clams; however, a decreased ratio was observed when the water velocity exceeded a certain threshold because the clams failed to maintain stability. Juvenile clams crawled out of the substrate upon tidal exposure to air, with a longer exposure time leading to a higher crawling ratio. After exposure, some juveniles floated on the water surface for a period before sinking, and the proportion of floating juveniles advanced with exposure time. This study provides a preliminary understanding of the escaping mechanism of M. chinensis from an ethological perspective, providing ideas for solving the problem of proventing M. chinensis Phillipi from escaping.
|Key words: Mactra chinensis Philippi Behavior Jump burrowing Periodic air exposure Escape