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引用本文:韦毓,翁旭东,于瑾,高阳,应晓国,余林,胡家杰,曾妮.不同养殖模式对鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)营养品质及特征风味的影响研究.海洋与湖沼,2024,55(1):243-252.
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不同养殖模式对鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)营养品质及特征风味的影响研究
韦毓1, 翁旭东2, 于瑾1,3, 高阳1, 应晓国1, 余林1, 胡家杰1, 曾妮3
1.浙江海洋大学食品与药学学院 浙江舟山 316022;2.浙江渔老大农业科技有限公司 浙江衢州 324400;3.龙游县农业农村局养殖业发展中心 浙江衢州 324400
摘要:
为研究池塘内循环流水养殖与传统池塘养殖模式条件下鲫鱼的营养品质及特征风味, 对鲫鱼形体、基础营养成分、蒸煮损失和持水力、肌肉蛋白质消化率、氨基酸、脂肪酸和挥发性化合物含量等指标进行分析评价。结果表明: 跑道组和池塘组鲫鱼的形体指标和基础营养成分具有较大差异, 其中跑道组具有高蛋白低脂肪的特点。同时两种养殖模式下鲫鱼的蒸煮损失和持水力相接近。跑道组鲫鱼蛋白质消化率显著高于池塘组鲫鱼(P<0.05)。游离氨基酸分析结果表明跑道组鲫鱼中鲜味氨基酸(天冬氨酸和谷氨酸)和甜味氨基酸(谷氨酸和丙氨酸等)含量均显著高于池塘组(P<0.05), 因此跑道组鲫鱼可能具有更佳的风味。此外两种养殖模式下鲫鱼肌肉氨基酸组成无显著差异(P<0.05), 然而跑道组鲫鱼不饱和脂肪酸含量(4.803 8 g/100 g)高于池塘组(1.411 1 g/100 g)。基于GC-IMS结果可知, 两种养殖模式下鲫鱼的挥发性化合物具有显著差异。通过层次聚类热图分析从57种挥发性化合物中筛选出了33种特性差异标记物用以区分不同养殖模式下的鲫鱼。研究结果表明, 池塘内循环流水跑道养殖在一定程度上对鲫鱼营养品质和特征风味有所改善, 可以通过GC-IMS技术进行有效快速鉴别, 同时阐明了风味感官差异的物质基础, 为淡水鱼养殖模式选择和产品定位提供理论基础。
关键词:  池塘内循环流水养殖模式  传统池塘养殖模式  跑道养殖模式  鲫鱼  营养品质  风味
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20230800171
分类号:S965.117
基金项目:浙江省科学技术厅资助项目,2023C02006号。
附件
STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT CULTURE MODES ON THE NUTRITIONAL QUALITY AND CHARACTERISTIC FLAVOR OF CARASSIUS AURATUS
WEI Yu1, WENG Xu-Dong2, YU Jin1,3, GAO Yang1, YING Xiao-Guo1, YU Lin1, HU Jia-Jie1, ZENG Ni3
1.School of Food and Pharmacy, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316022, China;2.Zhejiang Yulaoda Agricultural Technology Co., Ltd., Quzhou 324400, China;3.Longyou Aquaculture Development Center, Agricultural and Rural Bureau of Longyou County, Quzhou 324400, China
Abstract:
In order to study the nutritional quality and characteristic flavor of Carassius auratus under the conditions of internal-circulation pond aquaculture mode and traditional pond aquaculture mode, the indexes of C. auratus morphology, basic nutrients, cooking loss and water holding capacity, muscle protein digestibility, amino acids, fatty acids and volatile compounds were analyzed and evaluated. The results showed that the morphometric indexes and basic nutrients of C. auratus in the raceway group and the pond group were quite different, and the raceway group had the characteristics of high protein and low fat. Cooking loss and water holding capacity were close to those of C. auratus in both groups of culture modes. Protein digestibility of C. auratus in the raceway group was significantly higher than those in the pond group (P<0.05). The results of free amino acids showed that the contents of umami amino acids (Asp, Glu) and sweet amino acids (Glu, Ala) in the fish of the raceway group were significantly higher than those of the pond group (P<0.05), so the raceway group may have better flavor. In addition, there was no significant difference in the amino acid composition of C. auratus muscle between the two culture modes (P<0.05). However, the unsaturated fatty acid content of C. auratus in the raceway group (4.803 8 g / 100 g) was higher than that in the pond group (1.411 1 g / 100 g). Based on the results of GC-IMS, it can be seen that the volatile compounds of C. auratus under the two culture modes are significantly different. Through hierarchical clustering analysis, 33 characteristic differential markers were screened from 57 volatile compounds to distinguish C. auratus under different culture modes. The results showed that the nutrient quality and characteristic flavor of C. auratus could be improved to a certain extent by internal-circulation pond aquaculture mode, which could be effectively and quickly identified by GC-IMS technology. At the same time, it could clarify the material basis of flavor sensory differences, and provide a theoretical basis for the selection of freshwater fish culture mode and product positioning.
Key words:  internal-circulation pond aquaculture mode  traditional pond aquaculture mode  raceway aquaculture mode  Carassius auratus  nutritional quality  flavor
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