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绿鳍马面鲀肌肉营养成分分析和营养评价
徐大凤1,2, 刘 琨1,2, 王鹏飞3,4, 常 青2,5, 陈四清2,5, 边 力2,5, 刘长琳2,5, 葛建龙2,5
1.上海海洋大学 水产与生命学院;2.中国水产科学研究院 黄海水产研究所;3.农业部外海渔业开发重点实验室;4.中国水产科学研究院 南海水产研究所;5.青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室 海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室
摘要:
作者以黄海野生绿鳍马面鲀(Thamnaconus septentrionalis)为研究对象, 按国家标准(GB5009.3-6-2010)进行检测, 对其肌肉的一般营养成分和氨基酸、脂肪酸进行测定分析。结果表明: 水分含量75.47%, 粗蛋白含量17.88%(湿样), 灰分含量6.15%, 粗脂肪含量0.55%。肌肉中检测出17种氨基酸,其中含有7种人体必需氨基酸, 平均含量35.70%, 与总氨基酸含量平均比值为41.8%; 鲜味氨基酸4种, 平均含量34.33%, 与总氨基酸含量平均比值为38.74%。其必需氨基酸组成符合FAO/WHO 理想模式, 属于优质蛋白质鱼类。肌肉(干样)中粗脂肪含量较低, 含有7种饱和脂肪酸和18种不饱和脂肪酸。不饱和脂肪酸含量60.38%, 其中EPA、DHA含量分别在8.71%和23.78%。根据氨基酸评分(AAS)、化学评分(CS), 第一限制氨基酸和第二限制氨基酸分别为蛋氨酸+半胱氨酸和缬氨酸, 必需氨基酸AAS均大于1.0, CS均大于0.8。必需氨基酸指数(EAAI)为92.20, 高于大部分经济鱼类。因此, 野生绿鳍马面鲀肌肉各营养成分种类齐全含量较高, 是理想的食用鱼类, 今后值得继续开发。
关键词:  绿鳍马面鲀(Thamnaconus septentrionalis)  肌肉  营养成分  营养评价
DOI:10.11759/hykx20171213001
分类号:
基金项目:中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所级基本科研业务费项目(20603022017014); 农业部外海渔业开发重点实验室开放基金(LOF2017-05)
Analysis of nutritional composition in the muscle of Thamnaconus septentrionalis
XU Da-feng,LIU Kun,WANG Peng-fei,CHANG Qing,CHEN Si-qing,BIAN Li,LIU Chang-lin,GE Jian-long
Abstract:
Thamnaconus septentrionalis is a type of marine fish species distributed along the coast. This fish has a high market value because of its excellent taste and nutrition. In this study, we analyzed and compared the nutritional composition of the muscles of wild fish using national standard methods to better evaluate its nutritional value and edibility. The contents of moisture, crude protein, crude fat, and ash in the fresh muscle of T. septentrionalis were calculated as 75.47%, 17.88%, 6.15%, and 0.55%, respectively. Seventeen types of amino acids were found in the muscle of T. septentrionalis, which included seven types of essential amino acids (the average content: 35.7%), and the proportion of EAA to TAA was 41.8%. Four types of delicious amino acids (the average content: 34.33%) were found in the muscle, and the proportion of DAA to TAA was 38.74%. These results were in good agreement with the ideal protein standard suggested by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO). The crude fat content was lower in the dry muscle of T. septentrionalis than in other fish species, which included 25 types of fatty acids (7 types of saturated fatty acids and 18 types of unsaturated fatty acids). The contents of C20: 5ω3 (EPA) and C22: 6ω3 (DHA) in the dry muscle were 8.71% and 23.78%, respectively, which guaranteed good taste and high nutritional value. According to the amino acid score (AAS) and the chemical score (CS), the first and the second restriction amino acids of the fish were Met+Cys and Val, respectively, and the essential amino acid index (EAAI) of T. septentrionalis was 92.20, which was higher than that of the majority of fish species. Furthermore, the high level of minerals found in the muscle could be of great benefit for human metabolism and health. Thus, T. septentrionalis can certainly be considered as a good protein source for humans. Therefore, it should be a promising candidate fish species for large-scale aquaculture in the near future.
Key words:  Thamnaconus septentrionalis  muscle  nutritional composition  nutrition evaluation
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