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引用本文:杨蒙召,曹奕,袁红春,史经伟.捕食者不同目标策略下的鱼群结构变化仿真与研究[J].海洋科学,2022,46(12):191-200.
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捕食者不同目标策略下的鱼群结构变化仿真与研究
杨蒙召, 曹奕, 袁红春, 史经伟
上海海洋大学 信息学院, 上海 201306
摘要:
在海洋生态环境中, 食物链上层捕食者对下层鱼群的捕猎行为可以被普遍地观察到, 捕食者攻击的策略以及鱼群的防御机制是海洋捕猎行为的关键。本文构建了鱼群行为模型并对捕食者目标选择策略进行模拟, 3种策略分别是选择“最近”“最中心”和“最外围”的个体。在虚拟环境中模拟单个捕食者攻击鱼群这一过程, 对3种目标选择策略做比较分析, 以鱼群结构变化程度的3个关键参数做评判标准。首先发现采用选择“最外围”个体的策略对于中等规模鱼群造成的结构变化程度最大, 其次拓展到不同大小规模的鱼群, 此策略仍是最有效的, 其中小规模鱼群因应对风险能力低, 无法体现三种策略的区别。
关键词:  目标选择  群体行为  人工鱼群
DOI:10.11759/hykx20220331002
分类号:TP391.9
基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目(41776142)
Simulation of the variation of fish shoal structure under different target selection strategies by predators
YANG Meng-zhao, CAO Yi, YUAN Hong-chun, SHI Jing-wei
College of Information Technology, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China
Abstract:
In the marine ecological environment, the behavior of upper predators hunting fish shoals lower in the food chain is commonly observed. The attack strategies of predators and the defense mechanism of fish shoals are the key of marine hunting. In this study, a model of shoal behavior was constructed, and the target selection strategies of predators were simulated. The three strategies comprised selecting the "nearest", "most central", and "most peripheral" individuals in the shoal. This study simulated a single predator attacking a shoal in a virtual environment, compared several target selection strategies that the predator may adopt, and used the changing degree of the fish shoal's structure as the evaluation standards. The basic Boid model was used to simulate the behavior of fish shoals. Shoal structure data were collected and compared under different strategies adopted by the predator and based on different sizes of the shoals. It was found that the strategy of selecting the most peripheral individual resulted in the largest degree of structural change for medium-sized fish shoals, and this strategy was still the most effective when used in shoals with different sizes. Among them, small-size fish shoals were less able to deal with risks and could not reflect the distinction of three strategies.
Key words:  target selection  collective motion  artificial fish
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