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引用本文:宣雯燕,张莹莹,陈琼琳,罗素雅,孙雪,徐年军.龙须菜(Gracilariopsis)/江蓠(Gracilaria)的生长和种质特性分析[J].海洋科学,2022,46(12):148-158.
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龙须菜(Gracilariopsis)/江蓠(Gracilaria)的生长和种质特性分析
宣雯燕, 张莹莹, 陈琼琳, 罗素雅, 孙雪, 徐年军
宁波大学海洋学院 浙江省海洋生物工程重点实验室, 浙江 宁波 315211
摘要:
龙须菜(Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis)是具有重要经济价值和生态效益的大型红藻, 主要用作琼胶提取原料和鲍的饵料。本研究利用生理生化、液相色谱-质谱联用和氨基酸分析等方法, 比较了龙须菜(Gp. lemaneiformis) (wt、981、Gl-1、Gl-s、Gl-g)、异枝龙须菜(Gp. heterocla, Gh)和细基江蓠繁枝变种(Gracilaria tenuistipitata var. liu, Gt)的生长及藻胆蛋白、琼胶、红藻糖苷和氨基酸等的差异, 以期为龙须菜/江蓠栽培中的种质区分及选择提供参考。结果表明Gt在23 ℃和30 ℃条件下生长均最快, 其相对生长速率分别为野生型龙须菜(wt)的2.19倍和2.49倍。龙须菜Gl-s中藻胆蛋白浓度最高, 为wt的1.91倍。除了Gt之外, 其余6种藻中琼胶产率较高(16.22%~18.91%)。Gt中红藻糖苷和海藻糖积累最多, 分别为wt的3.50倍和1.81倍。Gl-g、Gl-s、Gt和Gh多糖丰富, 在36.89%~40.23%; 龙须菜981、Gl-1、wt和Gl-s总氨基酸浓度较高, 在152.35~161.32 mg·g–1干质量之间, 并且981、Gl-1、Gl-s氨基酸评分较优。综合以上结果, 龙须菜981、Gl-1和Gl-s的藻胆蛋白、琼胶和氨基酸等均显著优于其他藻, 并且生长较快, 可用于琼胶、藻胆蛋白及多糖的提取或鲍的饵料; 而细基江蓠繁枝变种生长快、红藻糖苷和海藻糖丰富, 可大规模栽培用作鲍的饵料。该研究为丰富及开发利用中国大型海藻种质资源提供了重要的资料。
关键词:  龙须菜(Gracilariopsis)  江蓠(Gracilaria)  生长  种质  琼胶
DOI:10.11759/hykx20210119001
分类号:S917.3
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2018YFD0901502), 宁波市重大科技专项项目(2019B10009), 宁波市重大科技攻关项目(2021Z114)
Analysis of the growth and germplasm properties of the Gracilariopsis/Gracilaria seaweeds
XUAN Wen-yan, ZHANG Ying-ying, CHEN Qiong-lin, LUO Su-ya, SUN Xue, XU Nian-jun
School of Marine Sciences, Ningbo University, Key Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology of Zhejiang Province, Ningbo 315211, China
Abstract:
Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis is a commercially important seaweed with ecological benefits and is mainly used to extract agar and as abalone bait. In this study, the growth rate, contents of phycobiliprotein, agar, floridoside, and amino acid composition of Gp. lemaneiformis (wt, 981, Gl-1, Gl-s, Gl-g), Gp. heterocla (Gh), and Gracilaria tenuistipitata var. liui (Gt) were compared using physiochemical measurements, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and amino acid analyses. The aim was to provide a reference for differentiating and selecting the germplasm to culture Gracilariopsis/Gracilaria seaweeds. The results showed that Gt had the fastest relative growth rate at 23 ℃ and 30 ℃, with 1.19- and 1.49-fold increases compared to that of the wild-type Gp. lemaneiformis (wt), respectively. Among the 7 kinds of seaweeds, the phycobiliprotein content in Gl-s was the highest, which was 1.91 times that of wt. Six kinds of seaweeds contained the highest agar yields (16.22%–18.91%) except Gt. The floridoside and trehalose contents in Gt were rich and were 2.50- and 0.81-fold higher than that of wt, respectively. The polysaccharide contents of Gl-g, Gl-s, Gt and Gh were relatively high, ranging from 36.89% to 40.23%. The total amino acid content of 981, Gl-1, and Gl-s was 152.35–161.32 mg·g–1 DW, which was higher than the others. The amino acid scores of 981, Gl-1, and Gl-s were superior to the others. Based on these results, Gp. lemaneiformis 981, Gl-1, and Gl-s showed excellent performance, such as growth rate, amount of agar extracted, phycobiliprotein, and TAA, and could be cultivated to extract agar, phycobiliprotein, polysaccharides, or as abalone bait. G. tenuistipitata var. liui grew rapidly and was rich in trehalose and floridoside, so it could be extensively cultivated to feed abalone. This study provides an important reference for enriching the germplasm resources and utilizing seaweeds in China.
Key words:  Gracilariopsis  Gracilaria  growth  germplasm  agar
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