首页 | 期刊介绍 | 编委会 | 道德声明 | 投稿指南 | 常用下载 | 过刊浏览 | In English
引用本文:吴富村,阙华勇,张国范.我国皱纹盘鲍底播增养殖历史、现状及未来发展趋势[J].海洋科学,2020,44(8):56-68.
【打印本页】   【HTML】   【下载PDF全文】   查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器  关闭
←前一篇|后一篇→ 过刊浏览    高级检索
本文已被:浏览 47次   下载 24 本文二维码信息
码上扫一扫!
分享到: 微信 更多
我国皱纹盘鲍底播增养殖历史、现状及未来发展趋势
吴富村1,2,3, 阙华勇1,2,3, 张国范1,2,3,4
1.中国科学院海洋研究所 中国科学院实验海洋生物学重点实验室, 山东 青岛 266071;2.青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室 海洋生物学与生物技术功能实验室, 山东 青岛 266237;3.中国科学院海洋大科学研究中心, 山东 青岛 266000;4.海洋生态养殖技术国家地方联合工程实验室, 山东 青岛 266071
摘要:
皱纹盘鲍(Haliotis discus hannai)为我国原产贝类之一,自然分布于我国辽东和山东半岛等黄渤海海区,自古被誉为海珍之冠。我国皱纹盘鲍的资源调查、增养殖相关研究始于1958年,20世纪70年代突破了人工繁育技术并自20世纪80年代初开始人工种苗的试验性底播及人工养殖。鲍野生资源随着过度采捕而急剧下降,我国开始通过底播增养殖工作以恢复皱纹盘鲍的生物资源,其中底播养殖取得了一定进展,但生物资源恢复与增殖未能取得理想效果。20世纪90年代皱纹盘鲍杂交技术获得突破并产业化应用,推动了我国鲍养殖产业南移,目前福建养殖鲍产量已占到全国总产量的82.7%,而北方海区底播增养殖产业受养殖周期、成本和市场价格的冲击,以及底播越冬期间高死亡率等问题制约,已严重萎缩。自2009年起,在国家贝类产业技术体系支持下,相关研发及产业单位合作建立皱纹盘鲍底播型海洋牧场技术研发的产学研平台,进而于2013年提出并实施了“北鲍北养”产业计划。通过开展技术联合攻关及示范,部分地区的底播皱纹盘鲍已进入商业性收获等显著进展。本文针对我国皱纹盘鲍底播增养殖产业中亟需解决问题、发展目标、可实现途径以及未来发展趋势开展讨论,以期为我国皱纹盘鲍底播增养殖、原种保护、资源增殖提供借鉴。
关键词:  皱纹盘鲍  底播增养殖  可实施途径  发展趋势
DOI:10.11759/hykx20200325005
分类号:S9
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2019YFD0900800);国家自然科学基金(31972790);烟台市科技计划项目(2019XDHZ095);现代农业产业技术体系建设专项(CARS-49)
History, current status, and future development of the Pacific abalone seed release and sea ranching in China
WU Fu-cun1,2,3, QUE Hua-yong1,2,3, ZHANG Guo-fan1,2,3,4
1.Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;2.Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology(Qingdao), Qingdao 266237, China;3.Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266000, China;4.National and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of Ecological Mariculture, Qingdao 266071, China
Abstract:
Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, is one of the native species of mollusks in China, and is naturally distributed in the coastal waters of Liaodong and Shandong Peninsulas in the northern part of the country. The Pacific abalone is known as “the crown of seafood” since ancient times in China. Research studies on this species, including those on the natural resources survey and artificial spawning, were initiated since 1958 in China. After successfully developing the seeds production technology in the 1970s, the experimental seed release and farming of the Pacific abalone were conducted in the 1980s. With the rapid decline of wild resources due to overharvesting in the late 1980s, China began recovering its wild Pacific abalone resources through experimental and commercial artificial seeds release and sea ranching (i.e., bottom culture) technologies. Although positive progress has been recorded in some seed release programs, the resource restoration of the Pacific abalone has not been considerably achieved, as per the expectations of the authorities. Nonetheless, the commercial implementation of crossbreeding technology that commenced in the late 1990s has promoted the prosperity of the abalone breeding industry in China. Later, the north-south interregional farming modes emerged and promoted the farming of the Pacific abalone—a development that involved the shifting of the cultivation area from northern China to Fujian (southern China). The production of the Pacific abalone in the Fujian Province was about 163 000 ton in 2018, which accounted for 82.7% of the country's total annual yield. However, under the impacts of the breeding cycle, costs and market prices, and the problem of high mortality rate during the overwintering period, the cultivation industry in the northern sea region has been severely shrinking. Against this background, with the support of the China Agriculture Research System, the Industry-Institute (University)-Research Platform was established in 2009, and an industry plan titled “Revitalization Project of Abalone Ranching in Northern China (RPARNC)” was proposed in 2013. Under the conditions of high farming pressures and climate change impacts in the coastal waters of the northern China, the solutions for the successful Pacific abalone ranching in northern China were proposed. Solutions such as the increase in survivals during the early days after seed release and survivals in the overwintering period were implemented in this industry. Through joint cooperation with partners from the industry, the significant progress in the Pacific abalone sea ranching in northern China has been achieved, thus boosting commercial harvests. This study discusses the industrial problems and development trends that are urgently required in the Pacific abalone bottom culture industry in northern China, particularly the achievable approaches. Thus, this study hopes to provide references for the sea ranching, stock enhancement, and restocking of the Pacific abalone in China.
Key words:  Pacific abalone  sea ranching (bottom culture)  achievable approaches  development trends
版权所有 《海洋科学》编辑部 Copyright©2008 All Rights Reserved
主管单位:中国科学院 主办单位:中国科学院海洋研究所
地址:青岛市南海路七号  邮编:266071  电话:0532-82898755  E-mail:marinesciences@qdio.ac.cn
技术支持:北京勤云科技发展有限公司