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引用本文:张焕君,刘淑德,刘元进,涂忠,周全利,陈玮,孙伟,李凡.莱州湾游泳动物群落结构研究[J].海洋科学,2020,44(6):110-121.
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莱州湾游泳动物群落结构研究
张焕君1, 刘淑德2, 刘元进1, 涂忠2, 周全利1, 陈玮1, 孙伟1, 李凡1
1.山东省海洋资源与环境研究院 山东省海洋生态修复重点实验室, 山东 烟台 264006;2.山东省水生生物资源养护管理中心, 山东 烟台 264003
摘要:
本文根据2010和2011年春季(5月)、夏季(8月)、秋季(10月)和冬季(12月)进行的8航次调查数据,研究了莱州湾游泳动物群落格局及其与环境因子关系。结果显示,调查共捕获游泳动物85种,2011年生物量略高于2010年;生物量季节间差别较大,各季节生物量排序为夏季、秋季、冬季和春季;不同年间相同季节生物量差异多不显著(秋季除外);除2010年春季外,其余季节均为鱼类生物量最高,甲壳类次之,头足类最低;从全年调查平均值来看,莱州湾西侧游泳动物生物量(60.2 kg/h)明显高于东侧(33.4 kg/h)。根据8航次31个主要种类生物量聚类分析,莱州湾20调查站位可划分为4组:组I由位于调查海域东南的3个站位组成,组II由位于调查海域东部及中部的8个站位组成,组III由调查海域西北部(黄河口南侧)的3个站位组成,组IV由西部6个站位组成。组I浮游植物丰度、浮游动物生物量、游泳动物生物量和游泳动物多样性指数在各组中均最低,而底栖动物生物量最高;组III和组IV的浮游植物丰度、浮游动物生物量以及游泳动物生物量高于组I和组II。ANOSIM分析表明,各聚类组间群落结构虽有不同,但差异并不显著。DCCA分析表明,温度、盐度、底栖动物生物量以及浮游植物丰度是影响游泳动物群落的重要因子。研究表明,目前莱州湾游泳动物群落总生物量处于较低水平,特别是春季生物量下降尤为严重;生物量的季节分布发生了较大的改变,春季生物量极低,夏季生物量相对较高;底层鱼类比例下降的趋势有所逆转,头足类比例明显增加。莱州湾游泳动物群落格局异质性较低,可能与莱州湾生境异质性低以及人类剧烈干扰密切相关。
关键词:  生物量  聚类  非度量多维标度排序  去趋势典范对应分析
DOI:10.11759/hykx20191206001
分类号:S931
基金项目:山东省渔业资源增殖效果评价项目(SD-XGPJ-2012-2);山东省重点研发计划(2018GHY115014)
Community structure of nektons in Laizhou Bay, China
ZHANG Huan-jun1, LIU Shu-de2, LIU Yuan-jin1, TU Zhong2, ZHOU Quan-li1, CHEN Wei1, SUN Wei1, LI Fan1
1.Shandong Marine Resources and Ecology Research Institute, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Restoration for Marine Ecology, Yantai 264006, China;2.Shandong Hydrobios Resources Conservation and Management Center, Yantai 264003, China
Abstract:
Based on the data of 8 cruises in spring (May), summer (August), Autumn(October) and winter (December) in 2010 and 2011, the community pattern of nekton and its relationship with environmental factors in Laizhou Bay were studied. Overall, a total of 85 species of nekton were caught, the values of nekton biomass were higher in 2011 than in 2010. The biomass had a great difference between seasons, and the order of the biomass was summer, autumn, winter and spring. The biomass of the same season had no significant difference in different years except autumn. In all surveys except in the spring of 2010, the biomass of fishes was highest, followed by that of crustaceans and cephalopods. Nekton biomass was significantly higher in the western half of the bay (60.2 kg/h) than in the eastern half (33.4 kg/h). We grouped the biomass values of 31 main species of nekton captured at the 20 stations by cluster analysis:group I comprised the southeastern areas (three stations); group II comprised the eastern and middle areas (eight stations); group III comprised the northwestern areas (three stations); and group IV comprised the western areas (six stations). Group I had the lowest phytoplankton abundance, zooplankton biomass, and nekton biomass and diversity, but had the highest macrobenthos biomass. Phytoplankton abundance, zooplankton biomass, and nekton biomass were higher in groups III and IV than in groups I and II. The analysis of similarities revealed different community structures among the four groups; however, there were no significant differences. Detrended canonical correspondence analysis showed that temperature, salinity, benthic biomass, and phytoplankton abundance are the significant factors affecting nekton communities. The nekton community of Laizhou Bay has changed remarkably as compared with its previous survey values:total nekton biomass was at relatively low levels, especially in spring; seasonal distributions of biomass had become even lower in spring and higher in summer; and a downward trend in the proportion of demersal fishes had somewhat reversed. The nekton community now appears more homogeneous, possibly because of an increasingly homogeneous environment and the severe effects of human activities.
Key words:  biomass  cluster analysis  NMDS  DCCA
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