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大洋海山及其生态环境特征研究进展
马 骏1,2, 宋金明1,3,2,4, 李学刚1,3,2,4, 李 宁1,3,2,4, 王启栋1,3,2,4
1.中国科学院 海洋研究所 海洋生态与环境科学重点实验室;2.中国科学院大学;3.青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室 海洋生态与环境科学功能实验室;4.中国科学院海洋大科学研究中心
摘要:
海山作为深海大洋独特地貌, 尽管其研究可追溯到100多年前, 但对大洋海山的形成、地质特征、动力学特性、生态环境等方面了解甚少。随着人们认识海洋程度的提升, 特别是回声探测、无人潜水器和卫星技术等技术的应用, 对大洋海山的系统探索已取得了前所未有的进展, 大洋海山研究已成为当代人们所渴求探索的领域之一。本文对大洋海山的研究历程、分类、生物群落特征、水文环境特征以及维持海山区高生物量的机制进行了总结。目前全球海山主要有两种分类方式, 其分类一是基于构造特征, 可将海山分为板块内海山、大洋中脊海山和岛弧海山; 二是基于山顶到海表面的距离, 可将海山分为浅海山、中等深度海山和深海山。海山为生物提供了独特的栖息地, 形成了高生物量、高生物多样性和高生物独有性等三种主要的生物群落特征, 使海山成为世界海洋渔业的重点海域和生态环境研究的热点区域之一。海山突出的地形对大洋环流造成阻隔, 因而在海山周围形成了其独特的水文环境, 其中海山环流和上升流是其两种典型代表, 这些独特的水文环境特征对生物群落的组成和分布具有重要影响。海山区的高生物量主要通过上升流输送、地形诱捕和海流水平输送三种机制维持, 三种机制对支撑海山生态系统的物质循环和能量流动至关重要。
关键词:  研究历程  分类  生物群落  水文环境  维持高生物量的机制  海山
DOI:10.11759/hykx20180222001
分类号:
基金项目:青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室鳌山科技创新计划项目(2016ASKJ14); 中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA11030202); 科技基础资源调查专项(2017FY100802)
Research progress on oceanic seamounts and their eco-environmental characteristics
MA Jun,SONG Jin-ming,LI Xue-gang,LI Ning,WANG Qi-dong
Abstract:
Seamounts are unique landforms of the deep sea. Although their research could be traced back more than 100 years ago, little understanding about the formation, terraincharacteristics, dynamic characteristics, and ecological environment of the seamounts is known. As people understand more about the ocean, especially with the application of echo sounding, unmanned submersible and satellite technology, the systematic exploration of the seamounts has made unprecedented progress and the exploration of seamounts has become one of important fields that people are pursuing. This paper summarized the research history, classification, biotic community characteristics, hydrological environment characteristics and the mechanisms to maintain high biomass on seamounts. Currently, there are two classification systems for seamounts in the world. In the first classification system, seamounts could be divided into intraplate seamounts, mid-ocean ridge seamounts and island arc seamounts according to the structural features of seamounts, while in the second classification system, seamounts could be divided into shallow seamounts, medium depth seamounts and deep seamounts according to the distance from the summit to the sea surface. Seamount ecosystems have unique biotic community characteristics of higher biomass, biodiversity and uniqueness than the surrounding waters, whlie these biotic community characteristics are closely related to the unique environmental characteristics of the seamounts, and the hydrological environment characteristics such as cyclic flow and upwelling are the most important environmental characteristics of seamount ecosystems. There are three main mechanisms of maintaining the high biomass on seamounts, such as upwelling transport, topography trapping and horizontal transport of sea currents, which support the material circulation and energy flow on seamount ecosystems.
Key words:  research history  classification  biotic community  hydrological environment  mechanisms to maintain high biomass  seamounts
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