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铜藻繁殖发育过程的研究
李大鹏1, 李 慧2, 张桂军3, 马增岭2, 辛美丽1, 丁 刚1, 吴海一1, 郭 文1
1.山东省海洋生物研究院;2.温州大学 生命与环境科学学院;3.青岛西海岸新区渔政监督管理站
摘要:
本研究观察了铜藻雌雄生殖托的形态、精子卵子的排放和受精卵的发育过程。研究发现, 铜藻的雌雄性生殖托均为圆柱状, 而雄性生殖托比雌性生殖托更加细长。生殖托发育成熟后会形成生殖孔,卵从生殖孔排出, 靠粘液附在生殖托表面等待受精, 且有8个核, 被透明壁包围。而精子则呈放射状排列在生殖孔周围, 排出的精子具有明显的鞭毛结构, 游动到卵子周围完成受精过程。受精后的卵由8个核融为1个中央大核, 受精卵经过多次细胞分裂后形成假根芽。然后, 脱落在培养容器底部, 发育成带有假根的幼孢子体。8周后生长成带有2~3个叶的幼苗, 幼苗长达18mm。
关键词:  生殖托  精子  卵子  受精卵  分裂  幼苗
DOI:10.11759/hykx20180118003
分类号:
基金项目:国家海洋公益性行业科研专项(201505022-2); 山东省现代农业技术体系建设专项资金资助项目(DAIT-26)
Studies on the reproduction and development of Sargassum horneri
LI Da-peng,LI Hui,ZHANG Gui-jun,MA Zeng-ling,XIN Mei-li,DING Gang,WU Hai-yi,GUO Wen
Abstract:
The morphology of male and femal receptacles, the release of male and female gametes and the development of zygotes of Sargassum horneri were observed in this paper. The study found that the male and femal receptacles of Sargassum horneri both were cylindrical, but the male receptacles were more slender than femal receptacles. There were many ostioles on the surface of the mature receptacles. Then eggs were released from the ostioles and attached to the surface of receptacles to wait for fertilization. The newly released eggs had eight nucleis surrounded by transparent cell walls. The sperms were arranged in a radial pattern around the ostioles. The sperms released from the ostioles had distinctive flagellated structure. And the sperms relied on flagellum to move around the eggs. Thus the fertilization process was completed. After fertilization, eight nucleus in a newly released egg would rapidly start nuclei fusion to form a larger central nucleus and begin division. The zygotes underwent several times divisions firstly, and produced rhizoid buds. Then zygote developed into a multicellular germling with rhizoids and began to fall and adhered to the bottom of the culture container. After eight weeks of culture, the germlings grew up to 18 mm in the mean length and with 2~3 leaflets.
Key words:  receptacles  sperms  Eggs  zygotes  division  germlings
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