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引用本文:张国范,李莉,阙华勇.中国牡蛎产业的嬗变——新认知、新品种和新产品.海洋与湖沼,2020,51(4):740-749.
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中国牡蛎产业的嬗变——新认知、新品种和新产品
张国范1,2,3,4, 李莉1,3,5,4, 阙华勇1,2,3,4
1.中国科学院海洋研究所 实验海洋生物学重点实验室 青岛 266071;2.青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室 海洋生物学与生物技术功能实验室 青岛 266237;3.中国科学院海洋大科学研究中心 青岛 266071;4.海洋生态养殖技术国家地方联合工程实验室 青岛 266071;5.青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室 海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 青岛 266237
摘要:
牡蛎是近海生态系统的重要成员,也是世界性海洋主养贝类。我国牡蛎养殖历史悠久,但高质牡蛎产品的长期匮乏已成为新形势下产业转型升级的卡点。在国际海鲜市场,高质牡蛎就意味着品质好、品相优。为实现产业高质量发展,研究了中国经济牡蛎物种组成和地理分布;揭示了温度是不同尺度种性形成的重要环境驱动因子之一;构建了首个贝类全基因组序列精细图谱,发现基因组的高变异性和基因家族的特异性扩张是种性形成的重要遗传基础;对全球27个长牡蛎群体487个个体进行全基因组深度重测序,构建了50M级单核苷酸多态(SNP)资源库并制成190k高密度SNP分型芯片。这些资源基因组学(Resourceomics)研究为高质牡蛎创制奠定了基础。其次进一步查清了牡蛎经济性状的遗传力及表型相关性,锚定糖原含量调控的基因组模块区域,建立品质性状基因模块选育技术,育成“海蛎1号”新品种,糖原含量提高25.37%,比传统育种效率提高65.81%,实现了单一营养物质的定向选育,破解了牡蛎肉质改良的世界性难题。所建立的基因模块育种技术使高质牡蛎遗传创制成为可能。在育成新品种的基础上,还利用牡蛎附着变态阶段的生物学特性及上升流和下降流的物理学原理,创新牡蛎单体种苗制备技术,使种苗单体化率提高3倍;建立设施塑形生态育肥技术,通过壳型重塑并结合养殖水层的增肥调控,优型率达92%,出肉率达20%—23%。单体塑形养殖技术使牡蛎品相也达到国际知名品牌的产品标准。团队建立的高质牡蛎创制技术体系在县域规模进行标准化应用示范,支撑了“乳山牡蛎”成为行业第一品牌,产业经济效益提高2—3倍,实现了牡蛎产业从低质低效到高质高效的嬗变,示范带动了中国牡蛎产业的高质量发展。
关键词:  基因组  基因模块  新品种  单体塑形  高质牡蛎
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20200300092
分类号:
基金项目:
AN EVOLUTION OF OYSTER MARICULTURE INDUSTRY IN CHINA: NEW KNOWLEDGE, VARIETY AND Product
ZHANG Guo-Fan1,2,3,4, LI Li1,3,5,4, QUE Hua-Yong1,2,3,4
1.Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;2.Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China;3.Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;4.National and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of Ecological Mariculture, Qingdao 266071, China;5.Laboratory for Marine Fisheries and Food Production Processes, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China
Abstract:
The oyster, as major marine bio-resources, has become one of the most important maricultural species world-wide. Although oysters have been cultured for a long history, the lack of high-quality oysters hinders the improvement of both efficiency and economic return of the industry. High-quality and good shell-shaping oysters dominate the high end international market. To address high-quality oysters production in China, we investigated the composition and distribution of Crassostrea sp., followed by construction of the first whole-genome sequence map, revealing high variability of the genome and significant specific expansion of gene families. A 50-million level SNPs resource library was constructed and 190K gene chip for genotyping was built following re-sequencing of global 27 populations with a total of 487 individuals. Resourceomics progress paves the road for innovation of high-quality oysters. The gene modules which involved in the regulation of glycogen content have been located in the genomes. Gene-module assisted selective breeding technique was established to improve the meat quality, as evidenced the breeding of Haili No. 1, a new variety with high glycogen content. The breeding efficiency improved by 65.81%, solving the problem of nutrition content selection in oysters. Cultchless oyster preparation technique is built on the base of characteristics of oyster metamorphism, as well as utilization of both up-welling and down-welling systems. The harvest of cultchless oysters was improved by 3 times. The application of both shell-remolding grow-out technique and optimization of grow-out water depth helps the production of high-quality oyster, in which the meat rate and good shell-shape approximated to 20%-23% and 92%, respectively. Cultchless oyster preparation and shell-remolding grow-out technique ensures the oysters to reach the standard of international brands of oysters. A standardized culture technique of high-quality oyster has been formulated and implemented on a county scale, supporting the forming of the leading brand of Rushan Oyster, in which the over-all economic return increases 2-3 times compared to the previous culture techniques. Rushan Oyster promotes the improvement of industry quality and efficiency, as well as upgrading of oyster mariculture industry.
Key words:  genomics  gene module  new variety  cultchless remolding  high-quality oyster
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