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引用本文:宋金明.奠基海洋化学研究,助推海洋科学发展——中国科学院海洋研究所海洋化学研究70年.海洋与湖沼,2020,51(4):695-704.
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奠基海洋化学研究,助推海洋科学发展——中国科学院海洋研究所海洋化学研究70年
宋金明
作者单位
宋金明 中国科学院海洋生态与环境科学重点实验室 中国科学院海洋研究所 青岛 266071
青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室海洋生态与环境科学功能实验室 青岛 266237
中国科学院大学 北京 100049
中国科学院海洋大科学研究中心 青岛 266071 
摘要:
本文系统总结了中国科学院海洋研究所建所70年来,海洋化学研究的发展历程和主要科学贡献,在此基础上,提出了海洋化学的发展愿景。建国初期的中科院海洋研究所是我国海洋化学研究的主要奠基者和引领者,70年来一直是我国化学海洋学、海洋生物资源化学利用以及海洋腐蚀与防护等领域的中坚力量,为中国海洋化学的发展做出了不可替代的重大贡献。1950—1990年,系统获得了渤黄东海重要化学要素的分布特征,发现了黄东海溶解氧存在最大值系冬季保持而来;构建了大型海藻经济组分提取的系统化方案,奠定了世界最大规模海藻化学工业的基础;系统开拓了我国海洋腐蚀与防护领域的研究。1990—2020年,中科院海洋研究所的海洋化学研究全面与国际接轨,系统研究了中国近海化学要素特别是微痕量无机/有机组分的分布迁移转化特征及机制,提出了海洋生物地球化学研究的系统思路;研制成功褐藻多糖硫酸酯治疗肾衰新海洋药物,发现大量具有生物活性的海洋活性物质,在应用海洋化学领域也有重要进展。
关键词:  海洋化学  中国科学院海洋研究所  70周年
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20200200046
分类号:P734
基金项目:青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室鳌山科技创新计划项目“近海生态灾害发生机理与防控策略”,2016ASKJ02-4号;山东省重大科技创新工程专项“近海富营养化及其生态灾害环境驱动作用”,2018SDKJ0504-1号。
LAY A FOUNDATION FOR MARINE CHEMISTRY RESEARCH AND BOOST THE DEVELOPMENT OF MARINE SCIENCE: MARINE CHEMISTRY RESEARCH FOR 70 YEARS IN THE INSTITUTE OF OCEANOLOGY, CHINESE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (IOCAS)
SONG Jin-Ming
Abstract:
The author systematically summarized the development history and main scientific contributions of the marine chemistry research in 70 years since the establishment of the Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IOCAS). And on this basis, the development prospect of the marine chemistry research is put forward. IOCAS in the early days of the founding of the People's Republic of China was the main founder and leader of China's marine chemistry research. Over the past 70 years, IOCAS, which make an irreplaceable and significant contribution to the development of China's marine chemistry, has been the backbone of China's chemical oceanography, chemical utilization of marine biological resources, and marine corrosion and protection studies. From 1950 to 1990, the distribution characteristics of important chemical elements in the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea were obtained comprehensively; meanwhile, it was found that the dissolved oxygen contents exist maximum values in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea, which have been found maintained since winter. A systematic scheme for extracting the economic components of macroalgae was established, which laid the foundation for the world's largest chemical industry of algae. The research on marine corrosion and protection in China has been systematically explored and developed. From 1990 to 2020, the marine chemistry research in the IOCAS was fully in line with the international standards. The distribution, migration and transformation characteristics and mechanism of chemical elements, especially micro-trace inorganic/organic components, were systematically studied in the China marginal seas. A systematic approach to the study of marine biogeochemistry was proposed. In addition, there have also been important advances in the applied marine chemistry. For example, a new marine drug for the treatment of renal failure was successfully developed, and a large number of bioactive marine substances were discovered.
Key words:  marine chemistry  Institute of Oceanology,Chinese Academy of Sciences (IOCAS)  70-year anniversary
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