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高盐和温度对凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)受精卵孵化及幼体发育的影响
赵玉超1, 王仁杰1, 沈敏1, 董甜甜1, 崔彦婷1, 王淑生2, 凌涛3, 李玉全1, 付瑞江4
1.青岛农业大学海洋科学与工程学院 青岛 266109;2.滨州市渔业技术推广站 滨州 256616;3.潍坊市渔业技术推广站 潍坊 261061;4.滨州市北海新区海缘养殖科技有限公司 滨州 256616
摘要:
实验以凡纳滨对虾受精卵和各期幼体为试验材料,探讨了高盐和温度对受精卵孵化和幼体发育的影响,以及各期幼体对高盐的耐受性。结果表明,高盐胁迫和温度显著影响受精卵的孵化率、初孵时间和集中孵化时间(P<0.05)。随盐度和温度升高,平均孵化率呈先升高后降低的变化趋势,盐度30和温度32℃时孵化率最高。盐度由33升至36时孵化率由74.67%下降到50.79%,盐度39时孵化率仅为3.42%,盐度42无幼体孵出。受精卵最早可在7.5 h左右完成幼体破膜孵化。同一温度下,初孵时间随盐度的升高而延长。盐度27—33和温度30—33℃时,受精卵集中于胚胎发育后的7.5—11.5h完成孵化,时间最短;溞状幼体对高盐胁迫的耐受性随变态发育逐渐提高,表现为Z3 > Z2 > Z1;糠虾各期幼体及仔虾P1—P3间耐盐性均无显著差异(P>0.05)。此外,幼体的发育指数也随盐度升高而下降,盐度越高,幼体发育越慢。结果说明,高盐和低温会抑制凡纳滨对虾受精卵孵化和幼体变态,受精卵孵化的盐度上限在39—42之间。
关键词:  盐度  温度  凡纳滨对虾  孵化  变态发育
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20180900222
分类号:S968.22;Q955
基金项目:山东省现代农业产业技术体系虾蟹类创新团队项目,SDAIT-15-011号;山东省海洋与渔业科技创新计划项目,2017YY20号;山东省一流学科建设项目;青岛农业大学研究生创新计划项目,QYC201725号。
EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND HIGH SALINITY ON EGGS HATCHING, METAMORPHOSIS RATE AND SALINITY TOLERANCE OF LARVA IN LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI
ZHAO Yu-Chao1, WANG Ren-Jie1, SHEN Min1, DONG Tian-Tian1, CUI Yan-Ting1, WANG Shu-Sheng2, LING Tao3, LI Yu-Quan1, FU Rui-Jiang4
1.Marine Science and Engineering College, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, China;2.Binzhou Fisheries Technology Extension Station, Binzhou 256616, China;3.Weifang Fisheries Technology Extension Station, Weifang 261061, China;4.Hai Yuan Breeding Technology Co., Ltd,. Binzhou 256616, China
Abstract:
Based on the fertilized eggs and larvaes of Litopenaeus vannamei, the effects of high salinity and temperature on hatching of fertilized eggs and larval development were discussed, the tolerance of larvae to salinity stress and the effect of high salinity stress on the metamorphosis of larvae were studied. High salinity stress and temperature had significant effects on hatchability, first hatching time of larvae and concentrated hatching time of larvae (P<0.05). As the increase of salinity and temperature, the average hatchability performed increasing first, then decreasing, the hatchability can reach the maximum at salinity 30 and 32℃. The hatching rate dropped from 74.67% to 50.79% when the salinity rose from 33 to 36; the hatching rate was only 3.42% at salinity 39, no nauplius was hatched at salinity 42. The fertilized egg can finish hatching at 7.5 hours of embryo development; the initial hatching time of larvae would be prolonged by the increase of salinity at the same temperature. Under the range of salinity 27-33 and 30-33℃, the fertilized egg concentrated on the incubation process of the naupli by 7.5-11.5h after the embryonic development, it took the shortest time to fulfil brooding. The tolerance of the larvae to high salt stress was gradually improved with development by metamorphosis. There was no significant difference in salt tolerance between mysis stage larvas and P1-P3 stage post larvae (P>0.05). In addition, the larval stage index also decreased with the increase of salinity, the higher the salinity, the slower the development of larvae. The results showed that high salinity and low temperature could inhibit hatching and metamorphosis of L. vannamei, and the upper limit of the salinity of the fertilized egg hatches was between 39 and 42.
Key words:  salinity  temperature  Litopenaeus vannamei  hatchability  metamorphosis rate
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