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粤西海陵湾养殖区邻近海域大型底栖动物生态学特征
李亚芳,杜飞雁,王亮根,宁加佳,李纯厚
1.中国水产科学研究院南海水产研究所 广东省渔业生态环境重点实验室 广州 510300;2.中国水产科学研究院南海水产研究所 农业部南海渔业资源开发利用重点实验室 广州 510300
摘要:
根据2014—2016年粤西海陵湾养殖区湾内和湾外邻近海域21°27'—21°38'N、111°42'—111°57'E 4个航次调查资料,对其大型底栖动物生态学特征进行了研究。结果表明,共鉴定大型底栖动物64种,春季种类最多为39种,秋季最低为17种。4季均以环节动物种类数最多,软体动物次之。不同季节间优势种有所差异,仅倍棘蛇尾Amphioplus sp.为周年优势种。春、夏、秋和冬季第一优势种分别为倍棘蛇尾、菲律宾蛤仔Ruditapes philippinarum、短吻铲荚螠Listriolobus brevirostris和平蛤蜊Mactra mera。平均丰度和生物量分别为213ind./m2和15.4g/m2,其中丰度以春季最高为248ind./m2,夏季最低为167ind./m2,而生物量则以秋季最高为28.0g/m2,春季最低为2.4g/m2;平面分布总体呈现湾外高于湾内的趋势。底栖动物Pielou均匀度和Shannon-Wiener多样性指数分别为0.95—1.00和1.56—4.07,其中时间分布规律明显,春季最高,秋季最低;空间上,两者明显分布差异。群落结构时空差异显著,为沉积物类型、水深、底层机氮和悬浮物以及捕食压力等因素共同影响的结果。
关键词:  海陵湾  养殖区  大型底栖动物  群落特征  环境因素
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20180300058
分类号:Q958.85
基金项目:公益性行业(农业)科研专项经费资助项目,201403008号。
ECOLOGY OF MACROBENTHIC FAUNA COMMUNITY IN AQUACULTURE ZONES OF HAILING BAY AND ADJACENT WATERS ALONG THE WESTERN GUANGDONG COAST, CHINA
LI Ya-Fang1,2,3,2, DU Fei-Yan1,2,3,2, WANG Liang-Gen1,2,3,2, NING Jia-Jia1,2,3,2, LI Chun-Hou1,2,3,2
1.Guangdong Provincial Key Lab. of Fishery Ecology and Environment;2.South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Guangzhou 510300, China;3.Key Lab. of South China Sea Fishery Research Exploitation & Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture
Abstract:
A four-season investigation was conducted in the aquaculture zone of Hailing Bay and adjacent waters along the western Guangdong coast (21°27'-21°38'N, 111°42'-111°57'E), South China in 2014-2016, in which macrobenthic fauna community was sampled and examined to understand the ecological characteristics. Sixty-four macrobenthic species were obtained (39 in spring, 27 in summer, 21 in winter, and 17 in autumn), of which Annelida was the dominant, followed by Mollusca. The dominant macrobenthic species differed in season, except for Amphioplus sp., the only annual dominant. The most dominant species in spring, summer, autumn, and winter were Amphioplus sp., Ruditapes philippinarum, Listriolobus brevirostris, and Mactra mera, respectively. The average abundance and biomass were 213ind./m2and 15.4g/m2, respectively; the maximum abundance occurred in spring (248ind./m2) and the minimum in summer (167ind./m2); the maximum biomass in autumn (28.0g/m2) and the minimum in spring (2.4g/m2). The spatial distribution was generally higher in the waters outside the bay than inside. The Pielou evenness and Shannon-Wiener diversity indices ranged 0.95-1.00 and 1.56-4.07, respectively, being highest in spring and lowest in autumn but no obvious spatial variation. The results of cluster analysis and MDS show that macrobenthic fauna community in the study areas displayed significant temporal and spatial differences and they were mainly affected by sediment type, water depth, the content of total inorganic nitrogen, suspended matter in bottom water, and predation pressure etc.
Key words:  Hailing Bay  aquaculture zone  macrobenthic fauna  community characteristics  environmental factors
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