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山东长岛潮间带大型底栖动物生态特征研究
王金宝, 李新正, 王洪法
中国科学院海洋研究所
摘要:
2015年11月(秋季)、2016年2月(冬季)、2016年6月(春季)、2016年9月(夏季)大潮期间对山东长岛列岛中南长山和北长山岛的三个不同底质类型的潮间带采样点进行了系统的大型底栖动物调查,研究了其数量特征和季节变化,包括群落种类组成、密度和生物量、优势种、物种多样性等, 结果表明:本次调查共鉴定出大型底栖动物隶属7个门,共81种。其中环节动物门多毛类动物25种,软体动物门24种,节肢动物门23种,棘皮动物门6种,其它类群共3种(包括纽虫、腔肠动物和鱼类各 1 种)。潮间带大型底栖动物平均密度为118.97个/m2,软体动物和甲壳动物占据了研究区域底栖群落的密度主要成分, 两者分别占比为 39.58%和 36.68%。各采样点平均密度为北长山岛(BCS)(141.17个/m2)>避险角(NCS1)(122.33个/m2)>明珠广场东(NCS2)(93.42个/m2);各采样点平均生物量为128.03 g/m2,软体动物和甲壳动物占据了研究区域底栖群落的生物量主要成分, 两者分别占比为 58.56%和 35.32%。平均生物量北长山岛(BCS)(234.95g/m2)>避险角(NCS1)(99.99 g/m2)>明珠广场东(NCS2)(49.13 g/m2)。从季节来看,各站点的物种数、平均密度和生物量季节变化的规律性不明显,总体为秋、春季较多,夏、冬季较少。三个站点物种多样性指数(H")、丰富度指数(D)和均匀度指数(J")平均值分别为2.30、1.99、0.79,各潮区中,均为中潮带>低潮带>高潮带,各季节变化不明显。优势种受底质类型和季节变化的影响明显,没有种类在各站点和季节均为优势种,主要的优势种有平背蜞(Gaetice depressus)、绒螯近方蟹(Hemigrapsus penicillatus)、短滨螺(Littorina brevicula)等。与以往历史资料相比,长岛潮间带生物出现了一定变化,种类和数量减少,与烟台近岸潮间带大型底栖动物种类组成差别很大 。
关键词:  大型底栖动物,物种多样性,数量特征,潮间带,山东长岛
DOI:10.12036/hykxjk20180803001
分类号:
基金项目:
MACROBENTHIC ECOLOGY IN THE INTERTIDAL ZONES OF CHANGDAO ISLANDS IN SHANGDONG PROVINCE
Wang Jinbao, Li xinzheng, Wang hongfa
Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Abstract:
Macrobenthic samples were collected from three intertidal zones of Changdao islands during November 2015, February, June and September 2016, which represented autumn, winter, spring and summer, respectively. The species composition, abundance, biomass, dominant species and biodiversity of macrobenthic community were analyzed. A total of 81 macrobenthic species were identified, with 25 species of Polychaeta, 23 Crustacea, 24 Mollusca, 6 Echinodermata and 3 species in other groups.The average abundance of the three intertidal zones was 118.97 ind./m2 and Mollusca (39.58% of the total abundance) and Crustacea (36.68%) were the main contributors to the total abundance. Among the three intertidal zones, an abundance ranking of Beichangshan Island (BCS, 141.17 ind./m2) > Bixianjiao (NCS1, 122.33 ind./m2) > Mingzhu Square (NCS2, 93.42 ind./m2) was detected. The average biomass was 128.03 g/m2 and Mollusca (58.56%) and Crustacea (35.32%) were the main contributors to the total biomass. The seasonal variations of macrobenthic species number, abundance and biomass were not obvious among the three intertidal zones. In general, the abundance and biomass in autumn and spring were higher than that in winter and summer. The average values of diversity index, richness index and evenness index were 2.30, 1.99 and 0.79, respectively. A ranking of middle intertidal zone > low intertidal zone > high intertidal zone was detected for the three index. 16 dominant species were identified in the three intertidal zones, but none of these species dominated in every sampling site or season. Gaetice depressus, Hemigrapsus penicillatus, Littorina brevicula were the main dominant species. Compared with previous research, the macrobenthos in the intertidal zones of Changdao islands had changed to some extent. The species composition and community structure of intertidal macrobenthos in Changdao islands were different from that in Yantai.
Key words:  macrobenthos  biodiversity  quantitative characteristics  intertidal zones  Changdao Islands
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