|褐藻多糖硫酸酯（fucoidan，FPS）是所有褐藻中所固有的细胞间多糖，存在于细胞壁基质中。生长于潮间带、长时间与空气接触的褐藻种类中，如多年生的墨角藻（Fucus vesiculosus）类，其褐藻多糖硫酸酯的含量可高达20%；生长在较深处的海带（Saccharina japonica）类中含量较低，约为1%~2%。褐藻多糖硫酸酯是一类独特的结合有硫酸基的水溶性杂聚糖，其化学组成和结构非常复杂，以岩藻糖和硫酸基为主，随着褐藻的种类不同还含有半乳糖、木糖、糖醛酸等其他成分。褐藻多糖硫酸酯具有多种生物活性，目前针对墨角藻、泡叶藻（Ascophyllum nodosum）、鼠尾藻（Sargassum thunbergii）等褐藻中的褐藻多糖硫酸酯研究较多，发现其具有免疫调节、抗病毒、抗肿瘤、抗凝血、抗氧化等生物活性。本文主要就褐藻多糖硫酸酯的提取、纯化、结构及生物活性等方面研究进行综述。
|关键词: 褐藻多糖硫酸酯 结构 生物活性
|A Study on the Structure and Activity of Fucoidan
WANG Jing1,2, ZHANG Quan-Bin1,2
1.Institute of Oceanology Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;2.Qingdao National Laboratory and Marine Science and Technology, Marine Biology and Biotechnology Laboratory, Qingdao 266071, China
|Natural polysaccharides made predominantly of sulfated α-L-fucose residues are known as fucoidan. They are present in brown algae and in some marine invertebrates. The amount of fucoidan in brown algae varies from 20% in Fucus to 2% in Laminaria. Fucoidan, over the past few years, has attracted steady attention as a readily accessible biopolymer possessing diverse biological activity. Algal fucoidans have much more complex and heterogeneous structures devoid of regularity. It is noteworthy that fucoidans isolated from species belonging to different orders of brown algae differed in the structure of their main chain that was built of either 3-substituted or alternating 3-and 4-substituted α-L-fucose residues. Algal fucoidans are mainly composed of sulfated fucose. As the type of their glycosidic bond and sulfate group distribution are still under debate, their molecular structure remains to be strongly established. Fucoidan displays diverse biological activity with potential medicinal value, such as being an anticoagulant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, contraceptive, antiviral, and antioxidant. This review discusses the different extraction methods, purification methods, the structural features, and activities of fucoidan.
|Key words: Fucoidan structure biological activity