首页 | 期刊介绍 | 编委会 | 征稿启事 | 投稿指南 | 常用下载 | 过刊浏览
引用本文:
【打印本页】   【HTML】   【下载PDF全文】   查看/发表评论  【EndNote】   【RefMan】   【BibTex】
过刊浏览    高级检索
本文已被:浏览 431次   下载 0  
分享到: 微信 更多
温度对微食物网生物代谢的影响
张武昌, 赵苑, 董逸, 赵丽, 李海波, 肖天
中国科学院海洋生态与环境科学重点实验室
摘要:
生态学代谢理论 (Metabolic Theory of Ecology, MTE)指的是生物的代谢速度随着温度的升高而增加,随生物个体大小(即生物量)的增加而异速增长,根据MTE理论可预测异养过程与自养过程对温度的反应不同,低温对异养代谢的抑制要明显;而随着温度升高,异养代谢升高的速度比自养代谢升高的速度要快。MTE理论可以对海洋浮游微食物网生物的代谢研究进行理论指导,用于解释一些低温造成的海洋浮游生态学现象,以及预测全球变暖的影响。多年来人们一直根据MTE理论开展理论分析和实验检验,发现低温会抑制细菌和微型浮游动物的生长,并可以降低微型浮游动物的摄食率。春季高纬度海区的海水温度会抑制细菌的生长,而浮游植物则几乎不受影响,从而造成春季水华发生。温度和底物浓度是冷海(水温 ≤4°C)细菌生长率低的原因,但在永冷海(周年温度 ≤4°C的海区,包括极地海区和深海的大部分)中究竟是低温还是底物浓度限值了细菌的生长率还正在争论。全球变暖的预测认为本世纪海洋表层温度会升高2-6°C,根据MTE理论,温度升高对自养和异养过程的影响不同,围隔实验证明全球变暖将导致水华与细菌、水华与微型浮游动物的时滞变小,促进微型浮游动物对细菌和浮游植物的摄食,改变有机物质自养生产和异养消耗之间的平衡,使更多的物质和能量进入呼吸作用,使得生态系统变得更加异养,但在温度升高对海洋细菌生长效率和细菌生物量变化的研究方面,MTE理论还有一定的局限性,需要进一步的理论分析和实验检验。
关键词:  微食物网  代谢  生态学代谢理论  低温  全球变暖
DOI:10.12036/hykxjk20180723001
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(41576164);国家重点研发计划课题(2017YFA0603204);国家自然科学基金-山东省联合基金(U1606404)
Effects of Temperature on Biological Metabolism of Microbial Food Web
ZHANG Wuchang, ZHAO Yuan, DONG Yi, ZHAO Li, LI Haibo, XIAO Tian
CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences,Institute of Oceanology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
Abstract:
Metabolic Theory of Ecology (MTE) refers to the increase in the metabolic rate of a living being as the temperature and individual size (i.e. biomass) increases. According to the MTE theory, the responses of the heterotrophic and autotrophic process to temperature are different. There could be obvious inhibition of heterotrophic metabolism by low temperature. With increasing temperature, the increase of heterotrophic metabolism is faster than autotrophic processes. MTE theory can provide theoretical guidance for the study of the metabolism of marine microbial food web, with respect to explain the phenomenon of marine planktonic ecology caused by low temperature, and to predict the impact of global warming. Scientists have been conducting theoretical analysis and experimental tests based on MTE theory, and found that low temperature could inhibit the growth of bacteria and microzooplankton, as well as reduce the feeding rate of microzooplankton. In spring, the temperature in the high latitude sea area inhibits the growth of bacteria, while the phytoplankton is almost unaffected, resulting in spring blooms. Temperature and substrate concentration are the reasons for the low bacterial growth rate in the cold sea (water temperature ≤4°C). However, there is still debate about whether it’s the low temperature or low substrate concentration limits the growth rate of the bacteria in the permanently cold sea (annual temperature ≤4°C, including the polar sea and most of the deep sea). The prediction of global warming suggests that the ocean surface temperature will increase by 2-6°C by the end of this century. Enclosure experiments have proved that global warming will lead to shorter time lag between phytoplankton bloom and bacteria, microzooplankton maximum, stimulating the feeding of microzooplankton on bacteria and phytoplankton. Globe warming will change the balance between autotrophic production and heterotrophic consumption of organic matter, which allows more substances and energy goes into cellular respiration, resulting a more heterotrophic ecosystem. The MTE theory has some limitations in the study of the growth of marine bacteria and the changes of bacterial biomass with increasing temperature, which will require further theoretical analysis and experimental testing.
Key words:  Microbial food web  Metabolism  Metabolic Theory of Ecology  Low temperature  Global warming
版权所有 《海洋科学集刊》编辑部 Copyright©2008 All Rights Reserved
主管单位:中国科学院 主办单位:中国科学院海洋研究所
地址:青岛市南海路七号  邮编:266071  电话:0532-82898769  E-mail:luoxuan@qdio.ac.cn
技术支持:北京勤云科技发展有限公司
欢迎关注微信公众号