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中国沿海球形棕囊藻的分类、分布及其藻华
沈萍萍
中国科学院南海海洋研究所
摘要:
棕囊藻是全球海洋广泛分布的有害藻华种类。1997年10月,中国东南沿海首次爆发了大规模的球形棕囊藻(Phaeocystis globosa Scherffel)藻华,其后陆续在福建、广东、广西、海南及河北、天津等6省市沿海爆发多起同种藻华。20年过去了,球形棕囊藻在中国沿海从一个“藻华新记录种”变成了 “藻华常见种”。据不完全统计,截止到2017年底,球形棕囊藻藻华发生次数已达55次,发生面积超过10000 km2。尤其值得注意的是,2014年以来,广西北部湾海域棕囊藻藻华肆虐,威胁核电冷源安全,受到了社会高度关注,也为球形棕囊藻藻华的研究提出了新的挑战与要求。针对这一生态灾害新的发展趋势,本文总结了20年来中国球形棕囊藻及其藻华灾害的发生与发展状况,冀望为今后中国棕囊藻藻华的研究提供一些基础资料及一点新的思路。
关键词:  中国沿海  球形棕囊藻  分类  分布  生态  藻华
DOI:10.12036/hykxjk20171225001
分类号:
基金项目:
Phaeocystis globosa in costal China: Taxonomy, distribution and its blooms
Shen Pingping
South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Abstract:
Phaeocystis which can form nearly monospecific dense blooms are recognized as worldwide harmful algae. The first P. globosa Scherffel bloom event occurred along the southeast coast of China from Oct. 1997 to Feb. 1998 and was characterized by spatially large and dense cell aggregates (colony diameter up to 3.0 cm). And since then, P. globosa bloom had expand its distribution at additional locations, in particular the coasts of the South China Sea (SCS), e.g. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, and Hainan Island. During the past 20 years, in total of 55 bloom events have been recorded and covered an area approximately 10,000 km2 along the costal China. This dramatic increase in distribution has caused substantial economic losses on both fisheries and industrial activities. This paper aims to summarize related research during the past decades, and hopes to provide some fundamental information regarding this unique organism in China.
Key words:  China coasts  Phaeocystis globosa  taxonomy  distribution  ecology  bloom
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